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从课内到课外,开展学生自主拓展活动
作者:佚名 日期:2009年11月26日 来源:本站原创  字体:

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《新世纪高中英语》高三年级第一学期Module Two, Unit 3, The Luncheon Module Two的主题是literature, 教学基本目标是让学生接触英美文学,激发阅读原版的兴趣,培养审美情趣。其中Unit 3的主题是short storiesUnit 4的主题是drama

The LuncheonUnit 3的课文阅读部分,改编于英国小说家William Somerset Maugham (1874 – 1965) 的同名短篇小说。教学基本目标是让学生了解英语短篇小说阅读的基本要素。第一课时以泛读为主,教师作基本指导,要求学生熟悉小说梗概。第二课时以精读为主,要求学生在教师指导下阅读小说细节。本课时内还要求学生能掌握生词、理解结构较复杂的句子,并在阅读中了解西方的文化和习俗。

本教学设计属于第三课时,旨在将学生的学习由课内延伸到课外,并在教师指导下进行自主拓展活动。在Unit 4的学习中,学生将接触到drama。因此,笔者想在这两个unit间架起一座桥梁,也是为了更好地检验学生对小说The Luncheon的阅读,提高他们的学习兴趣,并为下一unit的学习打下基础。本设计的中心是让学生从小说阅读到drama编写,进而表演drama

笔者的学生课堂表现尚可,但课外自主学习不够投入,其中很大程度上是因为缺乏足够的“任务刺激”。笔者一直在寻找这样的“任务”和“刺激”,让学生最大程度地投入到英语学习和语言应用上来。本篇课文是个不错的平台,而启发笔者设计本“任务刺激”的是自己多年前类似的教学经历:教授短篇小说Asking Favors of Others (原上海版教材高二下)时,让学生阅读小说的前半部分,再以小组合作为基础续写结尾,再将其改编成drama,并表演。结果相当理想。学生不仅在完成任务过程中理解了课文,应用了英语,而且在活动中注入了情感,发挥了想象力,锻炼了合作能力,英语基本技能听、说、读、写都得到了相应的提高。

本课时实际上属于学生开展课外拓展活动的warming-up

教学目标

1. 引导学生理解小说人物性格

2. 引导学生把小说改写成课本剧并表演

3. 培养学生相互间合作能力

 

教学过程设计

I. Warming-up

1. Asking one or two students to tell the short story in brief

1) Telling the story

   In doing this, the students are asked to tell the short story in their own words. They are encouraged to do so either in the voice of the writer or in the voice of a third person.

2) Brainstorming: basic elements of short story reading

   It is likely that the students will mention the following: the time the story happened, the place, the main characters, the plots of the story, the climax and the ending, etc. The students should be guided that not all short stories share all the above elements.

3) Discussing personalities of the hero and heroine of the story

This task is of great significance in that the product will be implemented in the later rewriting and the making-up of the conversation and the final performance.

Hopefully the students will come to the following words or phrases:

I (the hero): inexperienced, naive, timid, kind-hearted, trying to save face, etc.

She (the heroine): chatty, sophisticated, gluttonous (greedy for food), lazy, hypocritical (show of friendship), etc.

2. Asking students to find new titles for the story

   In this stage the students are asked to work in groups, discussing alternative titles for the short story.

   It is essential that the teacher tell the students that a variety of things relating to the short story can serve as its title, say, the name of the hero / heroine, the time / place of the incident, the clue (sometimes a specific object), the background, the plot, so on and so forth.

   In the case of The Luncheon, I have prepared the following titles to be shared with my students:

A Bitter Lesson

A Bad Return Deserves Another

A Cheat

An Expensive Luncheon

Twenty Years

3. Assigning new task: asking students to change the story into a drama

II. Preparation work for the drama

1. Class discussion: what is needed for writing a drama? 

   The students will work in groups, discussing the necessary preparations to be made prior to the rewriting of the script and what can be done in this particular period.

   Possible preparations for any rewriting of a short story into a drama and acting it out can be identified based on students’ discussion as follows:

1) deciding on characters

2) agreeing on settings of scenes

3) making up conversations

4) grouping, task sharing

These are to be completed in class

5) costume designing, choice of props and music

6) rehearsal

2. Characters for the drama

1) Class discussion: How many actors and actresses are needed for the short play?

   The students work in groups, discussing details regarding characters. Hopefully the following will be agreed upon:

   Four characters might be needed, including a hero and a heroine respectively, a restaurant waiter / waitress and a narrator. It is possible that some figurants might add color to the performance, which is left to be decided by each group.

2) Name the hero and heroine in the play

   It is interesting that the hero and heroine in the story are both anonymous, which deserves further discussion. Nonetheless, in the to-be-written drama, it is advisable that every character have a name (the easier to remember, the better!).

3. Forming groups and sharing tasks

1) Forming groups

   This largely depends upon the required characters and the class size. Once the number of groups is settled, group leaders will be nominated either by students themselves or appointed by the teacher. Of course, top active students are encouraged to sell themselves. When this is done, it is left to the group members to agree on the responsibilities and power of each member.

Students are free to join any group, before which a “ground game rule” is agreed upon, for example, the numbers of boys and girls within each group should be proportioned.

2) Sharing Tasks

   Tasks are shared within each group. Major tasks include: someone will be the play-writer, someone will be in charge of props, and someone will be director, and still some will act.

   Group leaders must make sure of the deadline of the first script and final script of the drama and all the group leaders should negotiate a set time for the final presentation.

4. Scenes needed for the drama

   The students should be reminded that the scenes of a drama are generally divided according to where the plots are going on. Therefore, play writers must bear in mind how many scenes are needed in “our drama”. Students can be encouraged to decide on scenes in class and jot them down on the blackboard. The following conclusion might be reached:

1) At the theater 20 years ago

2) At Foyot’s now

However, students are encouraged to be innovative and feel free to make changes independent of the text. 

III. Students’ work after class 

1. Writing the script

   The students must be warned that their future presentation depends to a large extent on the quality of the script. Dialogues (actor’s lines) are equally important. Despite the fact that there are already lots of dialogues in the short story, they appear inadequate and less than lively in terms of the need of a drama. More dialogues must be put in and this can be done in light of the personalities discussed previously. Another point should be noted that while performing the students should mind their expressions and the use of body language. The heroines could be more exaggerative while acting. Students as they are, appropriate makeup is necessary. Time permitting, these can be done in class by means of discussion.

    The teacher should trail after and supervise the process of the writing of scripts and provide welcome instructions and make timely suggestions and comments to the writers.

2. Revising the script

    It is strongly recommended that the teacher and students cooperate in perfecting the scripts. And this should be done out of class for the sake of secrecy (one drama’s actors are spectators of another). This also guarantees the effect of suspense when the dramas are finally staged.

3. Preparations and rehearsal

   The teacher should be concerned about each specific group while preparations are in progress by attending all their rehearsals and offering instructions.

IV. Students’ presentation

   This can be done either in class or in the spare time. Students and teachers from other classes can be invited as guests or judges. The final presentation can be a competition.

 

设计思路

1. 教材中小说很多,平时对小说的处理基本上是以泛读为主,最多止步于让学生复述故事。似乎还是缺少了什么,觉得还有很多事可以做。比如说小说中人物的性格,比如为什么小说中人物没有姓名,只有Ishe。再比如,本篇小说大部分的场景是在某餐馆里,可以引导学生对比中外请客吃饭都吃哪些不同的菜。总之,把小说看作学习英语语言和文化的载体,其意义远远超越了对词和句子的理解。《上海市中小学英语课程标准》的学习要求部分提到:学生要形成良好的自主学习、自我评价和合作学习的策略和方法。让学生分组活动,特别是让学生自由分组,能激发他们合作的欲望,能挖掘他们合作学习的潜能。表演课本剧就是这样的一个活动。如果说把小说演出来是结果的话,那么其过程是非常复杂的,包括对小说的理解,人物性格的分析,场景的设定,对话的编写,分组,讨论,写作,排练,等。各项任务都离不开教师的指导,离不开学生的合作和自主学习。学生在写作过程中还会查阅很多信息。本设计旨在指导学生课外自主学习、继续学习,把语言作为一门应用的工具。

2. 教师在学生活动中的作用是指导。课外活动的主题由师生共同讨论。首先要激发学生的兴趣。因此,在warming-up中设计会调动他们积极性和引发他们兴趣的活动。通过brain-storming像汉语课那样归纳出小说的要素;让学生思考小说的标题。吊起学生胃口后,再引入正题, a more interesting and challenging task:把小说改写成课本剧并表演。然后引导学生讨论该作哪些方面的准备,哪些工作可以在课堂上完成。同时教师要根据情况交待如何写剧本,把握哪些重点,等。总之,教师引导学生思考和决定,并参与学生的活动。教师是建议者,也是评价者,特别体现在学生写完初稿后的审稿和表演的彩排。有些活动会引发学生的想象力,同时要求他们对文化有所了解。比如说,在让学生为主人公起名字时就体现了学生对英语姓名的了解。再如,教师可以特意安排一组学生把故事的场景安排在一家中国餐馆,其结果肯定出人预料。

3. 本教学设计在语言目标达成方面,考虑到了学生的阅读、听说(讨论、交换意见)和写作能力的培养。

 

教学再设计

(针对不同层次学生设计不同的学生自主拓展活动方案)

1. 根据情况,可以设计让学生分组只表演一个场景。让学生当堂讨论决定课本剧可能会有多少场景,然后集中精力表演其中一个或片断。这样,难度降低了,学生的兴趣可能会更浓厚。

2. 如果条件允许,在学生表演时可以安排部分同学担任摄像,并相互点评。也可以拍摄一些彩排的花絮。

3. 除把小说改写成drama外,还可以“以不同的人称”来改写小说:

1) 以小说中she的口气来改写。

2) 以小说中waiter的口气来改写。这样的改写最大的变化是心理活动的描写不同了。会更有趣,当然,也更具挑战。

4. 布置学生写书评。可以就某一特定方面来写。比如前面提到过的,为什么小说中人物没有名字?还可以改编小说结尾,或者续写小说。还可以评论小说中的主人公:Ishe。甚至可以学生想象写作二十年来she的生活。

无论如何,这种种写作都是对学生想象能力、表达能力、语言运用能力的锻炼。

Text

The Luncheon

I caught sight of her at the play, so I went over during the interval. She addressed me brightly.

“Well, how time does fly! Do you remember the first time I saw you? You asked me to luncheon.”

Did I remember?

It was twenty years ago and I was living in Paris, in a tiny apartment, and I was earning hardly enough money to keep body and soul together. One day I received a letter from her saying that she would like to have a chat with me about one of my books, so would I give her a little luncheon at Foyot’s? Foyot’s is a restaurant for French senators and it was far beyond my means. But I was flattered and I was too young to have learned to say no to others.

So we met at Foyot’s, on Thursday, at 12:30 p.m. She was about forty, and what impressed me most was that she seemed to have more teeth, white and large, than were necessary for any particular purpose. She was talkative, but since she seemed willing to talk about me I was prepared to be a good listener.

I was startled when the menu was brought, for the prices were much higher than I had expected. But she reassured me, “I never eat anything for luncheon.”

“Oh, don’t say that!” I answered generously.

“I never eat more than one thing. A little fish, perhaps. I wonder if they have any salmon.”

Well, it was early in the year for salmon and it was not on the menu. But the waiter said a beautiful salmon had just come in and he suggested we try some. I ordered it for my guest.

For myself I chose the cheapest dish —— a mutton chop.

Then came the question of drink.

“What would you like?” I asked, hospitable still, but not exactly as ready to please.

She gave me a bright flash of her white teeth and said, “I never drink anything for luncheon —— except champagne.”

I fancy I turned a bit pale, but I ordered half a bottle. I ordered water for myself.

She ate the salmon. She talked happily of art and literature. But I wondered what the bill would come to. Then came the waiter, with the menu. She had a glance at it and said carelessly.

“No, no, I never eat anything for luncheon —— unless they had some giant asparagus.”

I desperately hoped that the waiter would say no. A happy smile spread over his broad face, and he assured me that they had some so large, so splendid, so tender, that it was a marvel!

I ordered them.

The asparagus appeared. They were huge, juicy, and appetizing. I watched her eat them in large mouthfuls. Panic seized me —— I was not sure if I had enough money to pay the bill. At last, she finished. But a terrible thing happened.

The waiter came again, this time carrying a large basket full of huge peaches. They had the blush of an innocent girl; they had the rich tone of an Italian landscape. But God knew too —— a little later, for my guest, going on with her conversation, absent-mindedly took one.

“You see, you’ve filled your stomach with a lot of meat,” —— my one miserable little chop —— “and you can’t eat any more. But I’ve just had a snack and I shall enjoy a peach.”

The bill came and when I paid it I found that I had only enough for an inadequate tip —— three francs. But when I walked out of the restaurant I had the whole month before me and not a penny in my pocket.

As we shook hands she again insisted that I should follow her example, and never eat more than one thing for luncheon.

“I’ll do better than that,” I replied. “I’ll eat nothing for dinner tonight.”

“Humorist!” She cried merrily, jumping into a taxi. “You’re quite a humorist!”

I’m not trying to be mean, but it seems to serve her right —— today she weighs 126 kilos!

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